Bojano, Campobasso -- History and Culture (English translation)|
|Notes: Google machine translation of Italian Wikipedia text
Bojano is a town of 8856 inhabitants of the province of Campobasso.
The name Bojano (made in a manner acceptable to the Boiano version) is the main center of matesina molisana.
She gave birth to a university teacher and historian Emilio Gentile, one of the greatest scholars of international history of fascism.
The territory Bojano
At the foot of Mount Gallinola La (1,923 m), second top of this mass that marks the border between Campania and Molise, a short distance from the top of Mount Miletto (2,050 m), the highest peak of Molise. Is 25 km from the capital of the region 28 from Campobasso and Isernia. Termoli, on the Adriatic, is 85 km away and the Autostrada del Sole it is about 70.
The main village is located about 480 meters above sea level, in the middle of the plain name, dominated by the hill of Civita (850 m) and Mount Crocella (1,040 m). Several fractions (see opposite) for which the population of about 9000 inhabitants is only partially in your main focus. Among the fractions reported three major dimensions: Monteverde, agricultural center, built by the inhabitants of Bojano following the earthquake that razed the city to the ground in 1805 (the parish church is dedicated to Sant'Emidio, protector from earthquakes) in the plain position deviates from the slopes of the Matese, north of Bojano; Civita Superiore (formerly Bojano Rocca and Civita di Bojano), Norman village that is located in the mountains in a dominant position than the community citizen; Castellon, also predominantly agricultural village in about 4 km to the west than Bojano.
The territory is rich in springs, among which are reported at the Stones River Falls Biferno, the longest among those with the course entirely in Molise, and some of its tributaries, including the Callori (stream, with sources in high mountains ) and Calderari (source location in Santa Maria dei Rivoli) that crosses over a long stretch before the village join just outside it with the Biferno.
At Alifana are small artificial lakes for fishing. The mountainous area is closely covered with vast forests, mainly chestnut, beech, oak, cerro. It is worth noting that the tree chestnut oldest in Italy, whose presence was likely to date as the introduction of the plant on the Peninsula to the period of barbarian invasions.
Currently the town of Bojano has a very varied. If the role of the main center matesina it a center of a significant administrative and commercial, have a very important town in the agricultural sector and the presence of many industries (Bojano are located in the headquarters of the giant agribusiness Arena, the construction industry Leca-Laterlite and the presence, outside the municipality but only a few kilometers, the industrial area Campobasso-Bojano. A particular deserves the dairy sector: the town is famous in large areas 'Italy for the production sector and in particular that of cow's milk mozzarella, though the name is abused by the absence of a protected name. The tourism sector is relatively developed, will have significant presences in summer and in the winter (because of the nearby ski resort of Campitello Matese). In the mountainous areas still survive small groups that are devoted to farming or herding.
The city and surroundings
The town is distinguished into two distinct areas far enough but without solution of continuity: the old town, clinging on the slopes of Matese and Bojano new, built on the plain. Along the route of Corso Umberto Tratturo Pescasseroli pass-Candela. In their present few traces of its past in the Samnite and Roman periods (you can see remains of fortifications on Mount sannitiche Crocella and the imposing decumano Roman imperial era to the side of the Calderari, but for almost all l ' Roman and Samnite is below the current level of the city and has not been excavated), while significant are the testimonies of Christian history. Having been established one of the first Christian diocese, maybe even going back to apostolic times, the town has about forty churches divided into six parishes. The Cathedral dedicated to St Bartholomew goes back to the eleventh century (probably built on a former church cathedral or the result of an expansion), but was repeatedly destroyed by natural events (earthquakes, floods) or war. Interestingly the Norman apse, in the crypt below the altar stands, unique example of a particular symbolism that saw built on a spring. The perimeter walls using materials salvaged from the Roman era and the various reconstructions are evident when you see the old portal of entry, walled in what is now a side wall. Significant paintings of Joy and the recent frescoes. Are on the side of 'Old Cathedral in the so-called "gardens" measures that were used for medieval measuring cereals and food products.
At the church of Saints Erasmus and Martin (parish website: Saints Erasmus and Martin) are preserved fragments of Roman works, are the Gothic portal and the three windows of the facade, one of which contains a human figure which holds a rope in his hand that overrides the body.
On the mountain at 1025 m s.l.m. there is the hermitage of Sant'Egidio (where the tradition has lived the holy who fed the milk of a hind) of the ninth century, the anniversary of September 1, is seen as a real second party patronale by bojanesi and where thousands of people from surrounding areas come to the festival on the Mount.
Other churches are going back to medieval times, usually between the ninth and the twelfth century (SS Erasmusbridge and Marino, Santa Maria dei Rivoli, San Michele, Santa Maria Park, San Biagio, etc..) Presenting evidence of the period.
Civita di Bojano In addition to the characteristic structure of the medieval village, there are sections of the fortifications of the early Middle Ages and the ruins of the Norman castle, both have been in quite degraded due dell'incuria.
The Matese is one of the first European human population, as evidenced by the significant discoveries of Paleolithic Isernia. In historical time the first people in the Sannio allocated to where there is news is that some of OPIC (or Osci), offspring of Indo. Later, around the seventh century BC, these people were overwhelmed by the migration of people of Italian ancestry with which it merged. The migration issue, which gave rise to the Samnite people place in different sources of antiquity, especially in the greek geographer Strabo. These recounts how, following a war between Umbrians and Sabini (people of Italian lineage, closely related to race and language) them, winning, promulgated a Ver Sacrum (Sacred Spring) (which is held annually in Bojano (CB) , the capital of Sannio, for several years) in honor of the god Mamerte (corresponding to the Latin Mars and Ares greek). The following spring the fruits of the earth and native animals were offered to the god, while the children were sent, once grown, to colonize new lands led from the sacred to the god who had been consecrated, the ox, the head of the expedition was Como (or Comino) Castroni. Strabo tells that the animal stood at the foot of a hill called Samnium and then the people took the name. Other versions make up the foundation of Bojano to that, stop doing the animal sources of Biferno to drink. There was founded the city of Bovaianom (osco the name of the city is known from inscriptions recovered in the sanctuary of the Samnite Pietrabbondante) whose name clearly refers to the bove. The starting point of the migration is the small lake of čutila, in the territory of Rieti, in antiquity considered the navel of Italy. Note how in both the language Oscan Sannio as Sabina, to emphasize the close ties, are referred to as Safinim. The distinction of translated separately the two terms goes back to Latin.
The legend is considered very reliable, because the historical tradition of Ver Sacrum is documented in all the Italic tribes feedback from historical, archaeological, linguistic and genetic.
Another legend, this time not absolutely reliable, is that the descendants of the Samnites score. This legend was created by the Greeks of Taranto (colony of Sparta) to flatter the powerful neighbor in optical anti-Latin, as opposite of the legend in which Rome was founded by the Trojans.
In the fourth century a.C. the Sannio was organized as a federation of five tribes (Pentri, Cuadini, Irpini, and Carricini Frentani). The tribe was that of the hegemonic Pentri, who lived in the area between the Matese and Mainarde and whose capital was initially Kites, a city of which still is not certain location, then Bojano. The League Sannitica was soon mussels against Roman expansionism towards Campani, Italic tribes who shared with the Samnites origin, race and language (the conquest of Campania by the Samnites took place between the sixth and fifth centuries BC). From this flowed the three Samnite wars. The first suspect in reality you are limited to a series of small skirmishes. In 354 a.C. the two nations had a treaty agreement that saw the lower course of the Liri River, the border between the zones of influence of both the other party. Both peoples attack the people that separated them from reaching the border, but without exceeding the boundaries established, until the Romans to the contrary by sending troops to fight in Capua Sannita the conquest of Campania and unleashing the war, which lasted little and ended with the expulsion of the Romans in their areas of influence and a new treaty, so that Latin America was in the war thanks to the Samnites that the Romans had the upper hand on arunca.
Tito Livio describes Bovianum, Latin name of Bojano, as of that time by far the strongest among the towns of Sannio for men and means. He would have had second Appiano three fortified towns guarding the town. In fact two of these have been found on archaeological evidence and Monte Crocella Civita.
Rome again rejected the treaty in 328 BC founded a colony, Fregellae on the left bank of the Liri and processing alliance with Naples and Taranto, triggering the Second War Sannitica. After a year of skirmishes not decisive, the Roman Senate decided to defy the Samnites in a decisive battle, sending the two consular armies in enemy territory to penetrate into the earth Pentre. The meddix touticous (highest judiciary italica) Gavio Samnite Pontius, considered one of the greatest strategists of antiquity, but with skillful maneuvering outperforms the enemy army to Forks Caudine. On the advice of Erennio Pontius, father of Gavio and scholar famous for his collaboration with Plato and Archit from Taranto, but the army was not murdered but he was allowed the soldiers to return home after undergoing the humiliation of the yoke. It turned out to be a peace treaty very favorable to the Samnites, which provided five years of peace. During this period, however, the Romans were defeated by the Treasury and its techniques of warfare sanniti, taking the form of the shields and the use of the spear (the pilum). In 316 a.C. The Romans established alliances with Apuli and re-open hostilities on a broad front. If prevailed in Apulia and in the valley of the Liri, in Campania had failed to Sanniti Gavio led by Pontius, who pointed at Rome, which had to declare a dictatorship. Only the arrival of armed Spartan in Magna Graecia in 313 BC prevented the advance, saving Rome and the Latins allowing to regain control of the low Lazio. The successive defeats convinced Roman Etruscans to fall into a weapon against them, opening up another front, however, that the Romans already closed victorious in 310 BC
Riorganizzatisi, the Samnites assigned the command of military operations in the valley of the Liri to Stazio Gellio, who managed to have several times because of the Romans coming to and Anagni Frosinone. After a few skirmishes but was blocked and returned with the bulk of the army in Bojano. The Roman counteroffensive moved on two fronts: they sought to penetrate the Sannio Matese from (the battle where he died Stazio Gellio as the Roman consul) and Isernia. Livy reports that on this occasion was taken Bojano besieged and sacked, but the news is not worthy of foundation believed by historians. The combined threat of Roman armies and yet another mercenary army from Sparta, in the end forced to accept Bojano in 304 BC a peace that saw the Samnites waive the influence of the valley of the Liri and Campania.
The situation was now time for the Romans, who were able to establish treaties with Marsi, the Lucani, the Marrucini, the Peligni the Frentani all Italic peoples, and similar to the blood and language to the Samnites, but that passed in front of Latin . The Samnites instead establish friendly relations with the Celts and the Etruscans, but which were separated by large areas of Roman influence.
In 298 a.C. the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbato attacked the southern areas of Sannio, probably conquered Bovianum. Another console, Gneo Fulvio Massimo, attacked the northern territories of Sannio, trying to close the corridor with the people of Northern Ireland. Prevented transhumance and destroyed crops. The Samnites then took to the war on the side of the Celtic were able to circumvent the blockade and the Roman army Gellio Egnatia is ricongiunse that cock close to Perugia in 296 BC Joined the alliance also Umbrians, Marsi and Etruscans. The early successes arrisero to Celtic, but were not used properly and the outcome of the war it was decided to Sentinum where the Roman army could eventually reverse the fortunes of a war that seemed lost for non-rush of crowds marsicana and Etruscan , perhaps to poor coordination. The battle was known as the Battle of Nations and was the bloodiest in the age old Italian soil. Lost that war was decided: Bojano fell in 293 BC Kites soon after and finally lost its war with Rome for hegemony in Italy.
In 290 a.C. a new peace treaty was signed. The Sannio had to suffer heavy losses, control of Bojano is now only practiced in the territory Pentro and was governed by the left that pacta Sannio ally of Rome with obligations that did not provide any return had to provide the troops with which the Romans built their imperium , using them as meat for slaughter, but with no return because the condition did not provide socii citizenship and therefore no law: the Sannio was no longer de facto independent.
The situation of the Allies Italic interest to the social wars, in which rebelled socii Italic to Roman tyranny to ask, in exchange for quell'indipendenza fictitious enjoyed, citizenship. The first was the Italian capital marsicana Corfinium and his capitulation, were briefly capital (93 BC) Bojano and Isernia. The first to take the title of Emperor (embradur in osco) in Italy was the master of the Italic League, the then meddix touticous of Sannio, the bojanese Papio mutilated. The bos taurus-Samnite became the emblem of the covenant and was opposed as a symbol etnico along the effigy of the founder Castroni Como, the Roman she-wolf in iconography italica coinage found in italics.
Come to a capitulation by the hand of Rome, the Italian unit broke for the betrayal of some of the components in exchange for citizenship, which was then extended to the whole peninsula. The only component that was offered was not what constituted the backbone of the League, the Sannio. Rome wanted to adjust it once and for all the question of internal and proud ally did fall all the weight of the war only on Pentri. Unlike other socii, before being granted citizenship had to suffer the devastation and the systematic genocide of the indigenous population. This act ended the story and began the Samnite latinisation of Sannio. Oscan language, which in its various dialects was for five centuries the far the majority in Italy, left the place in the Latin and was confined to a few centuries yet to be a dialect of some isolated communities that had escaped the genocide Silla.
The city, built in defensible position on the heights, were razed to the ground and rebuilt as a Roman colony on the plains. A Bojano two colonies were latine: Bovianum Vetus, formed in 43-41 BC (when he had municipal status) according to Ottaviano Giulia Law, then in 73-75 AD another colony was founded by Vespasian with donations of land to veterans dell'XI legion; Bovianum Undecimanurum was called for this reason and to distinguish it from the previous colony. The fact that Pliny the old nomini Bovianum between these two colonies sannitiche Theodor Mommsen led to formulate the hypothesis (and the authority of the historic German mounted the misunderstanding) that could exist two Bojano, one of two found in the sanctuary of sannitico Pietrabbondante where an Oscan inscription badly interpreted by the historian created the erroneous conviction. In the current state of historical and archaeological hypothesis can be ruled out.
With the advent of Christianity Bovianum became the seat of the diocese and its bishops known to have stabilized since the beginning of the Christian era.
Bovianum followed the fate the empire of Rome and was overwhelmed by the destruction caused by the Gothic-Byzantine wars in central South of the V and VI century. A certain revival came from the seventh century, when the lands bojanesi, then under the influence Lombard but virtually uninhabited due to the devastation of war, were granted to the Bulgarian Alzeco. Bojano became the guastaldato called Hovianum and returned to influence a certain influence on the surrounding areas. Between the eighth and mid-ninth century, however, a new dark period was characterized by frequent incursions of the Saracens (whose presence is also documented during the campaign that led to the destruction of the monastery of San Vincenzo al Volturno) and two earthquakes which destroyed the 'area Matesina nell'847 and 853.
A half century Bojano was conquered by the armies of the Norman Altavilla feudatory and became a companion in arms of Robert Guiscard, Raoul de Moulins, who Italianized its name to Rodolfo de Molise who had two children: one male and one female. The daughter of Count Rodolfo de Moulins, Moulins de Aldruda, is married to Sarlo II d'Altavilla. In Rodolfo de Moulins is to be the building (or rebuilding) of Bojano Cathedral and the founding of the county. It was in this context that Bojano gave rise to the name of the Molise region. His race it enlarged the boundaries of the county to reach those around the Molise region and becoming the largest county in the Norman kingdom of Italy. The title of cross Bojano was replaced by that of the Counts of Molise by the name of the dynasty. The name stayed even when the dynasty became extinct. In 1266 it became the holder Amerigo de Sus. Capuano I arrived there in the fourteenth century. There are alternated so Pandone, the D'Artus and re Pandone. In the seventeenth century, the center was part of the possessions Carafa. Recently they were holding the Filomarino.
For it must be de Moles Castle Civita, which governed the county, and part of the fortifications (in the background were) of the medieval village. After the centralization desired by Frederick II of Swabia, who inherited from his mother Costanza d'Altavilla the Norman kingdom, the role of local feudal lords declined Bojano and followed the history of the Kingdom through the successive rulers of the Swabians, the Angevins, Aragonese, Bourbons, Napoleon, yet Bourbon Piemontesi up to the fascist dictatorship. The proclamation of the Republic, even after the devastation of the Second World War, it was preferred as the chief town of Campobasso region.
Starting from Italy, following the worsening of socio-economic conditions, Bojano has been subject to strong currents emigratorie to North Europe, the Americas, Australia.
There are many earthquakes (the Matese is highly seismic zone), which have often razed to the ground the village, particularly those of 1309, 1349, 1456, 1627, 1688, 1794, 1805, 1913.
Mayor: Antonio Silvestri (civic list) since 30/05/2006
Switchboard of the district: 0874 77281
* City of Bojano official website of the City of Bojano
* Bojano.wordpress.com News, information and records that are born from the Internet and relevant for the area matesina.
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