"Emigrazione italiana" (English translation)|
|Date: The 20th Century|
|Notes: Text, Italian Wikipedia; machine translation by Google
Italy has been interested in the phenomenon of migration especially in the XIX and XX. The phenomenon was first the North (Piedmont, Veneto and Friuli in particular) and, after 1880, the noon.
One can distinguish the Italian emigration into two major periods: that of the great emigration of the late nineteenth century and the thirties of the twentieth century (where it was predominant l 'emigration American) and European migration, which began in From the fifties.
The great migration
Estimated number of emigrants during the periods 1876-1900 and 1901-1915, divided by region of origin
"What do you mean by nation, Minister It is a mass of unhappy people? Plant wheat but do not eat white bread. Cultivate the vine, but not drink wine. Breed animals, but does not eat meat. Nevertheless we recommend you not to leave our homeland? But the country is a land where you can not live of their work"
(An anonymous respond to an Italian minister, sec. XIX )
The great migration has been a point of origin of the widespread poverty of large parts of Italy and the desire to purchase the entire population groups, whose departure meant for the State and the Italian company a strong reduction in the "population pressure" . It was as destinations particularly South America North America (including USA, Brazil and Argentina, countries with large areas of land not exploited and the need for workers) and in Europe, France. Ways and had different forms depending on the country of destination.
In the United States and Brazil are predominantly characterized as long-term emigration, often without specific projects back in Italy, while in Argentina and Uruguay was either stable or temporary (emigracion golondrina ).
The periods affected by the migration from 1876 to 1915 and from 1920 to 1929 approximately. Although the phenomenon was already present from the earliest years of the unification of Italy in 1876 which takes place the first statistics on migration by the Directorate General of Statistics. It is estimated that only in the first period left some 14 million people  (with a peak in 1913 of more than 870,000 departures), against an Italian population in 1900 reached approximately 33 million people.
Migration in the Americas was huge in the second half of the nineteenth and early decades of the twentieth century. Almost exhausted during the fascist regime, but had a small recovery immediately after the end of World War II.
The countries where most migrants headed Italians were the United States in North America, and Brazil and 'Argentina in South America. In these three states currently there are approximately 65 million descendants of Italian emigrants.
A large proportion of Italians went in Uruguay, where the descendants of Italians in 1976 were 1,300,000 (over 40% of the population, given the small size of the State). 
Shares of Italian immigrants also headed to Venezuela and Canada, but there were also fed colonies of Italian emigrants in Chile, Peru, Mexico, Paraguay, Cuba and Costa Rica
Virtually massive Italian emigration to the Americas is exhausted in the sixties, after the Italian economic miracle, although he continued until the eighties in Canada and the United States.
The European emigration in the second half of the twentieth century, however, had as its target mainly European countries like France in growth (from 1850) , Switzerland, Belgium (from 1940)   and Germany and was considered by many at the time of departure, such as temporary emigration - often only a few months - in which to work and earn money to build, then, a better future in Italy. However, this phenomenon has not occurred and many of the immigrants remained in the countries of emigration.
The Italian state in 1955 signed a pact with the emigration of Germany with which ensured the mutual commitment to, and migration that took almost three million Italians to cross the border in search of work. Today in Germany there are approximately 650,000 Italian citizens up to the fourth generation, while more than 500,000 in Switzerland, mostly Sicilian, Calabrian and Apulian, but the Venetian and Emilian now many of them with dual passports and the possibility of vote in both nations.
In Belgium and Switzerland Italian communities remain the most numerous foreign, and although many do return to Italy after their retirement, often the children and grandchildren remain in the countries of birth, where they have now taken root. An important phenomenon of aggregation that occurs in Europe as well as in other continents and countries of immigration in Italy is one of associations of emigration. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs estimated that there are more than 10,000 abroad associations formed by the Italian emigrants in over a century. Mutual aid associations, cultural, assistance and service, which constituted a fundamental point of reference for the immigrant community in the difficult path of integration in countries of arrival. The major networks of various ideal inspiration, are now joined in the CNE (National Consulta dell'Emigrazione). One of the biggest networks in the world, together with those of the Catholic world is that of FILEF - Italian Federation of Workers and Families Emigrants.
Internal migration (Italy)
Internal migration became important in the years'50 and'60, they were essentially of two types:
* Gentlemen Migration or displacement of young offspring from the countryside to cities for purposes of study.
* Transfer the industrial cities of the north-west of young males, married or in the process, with low educational qualifications. Women, however, emigrated to second the "call chain" or leaving before the men and then there's the family reunion.
Starting in 1995, the institute SVIMEZ (Southern Development Institute) began to observe a sudden rise in internal migration. The origin of the flow continues to be from the South but the predominant destination is, now, to the Northeast and the Center. The most active regions are the eastern Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Umbria.
However, the contemporary figure dell'Emigrante is generally very different from its counterpart of the previous generation. Only some migrate along with the family, the majority does so individually subjected to long commuting journeys and shares with others in the same condition, accommodation, often overcrowded. On the south-north migration, we must point out that graduates are not finding work near home, traveling in the north, where the demand for "brains" (teachers, doctors, lawyers, etc..) Is constant, with a question often exceeds supply, in particular as regards the school. Another strand is represented by young people enrolled in the police (Guardia di Finanza, Carabinieri, Police) who provide service to the barracks in the north.
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, nearly 30 million Italians left Italy with the main destinations Americas, Australia, Western Europe.  Currently living oriunda million Italians in different countries around the world: the most numerous are in Brazil, Argentina and the United States of America. Consider that a oriunda may have a distant ancestor born in Italy so the majority of oriunda only Italian surname (often not even that) and not Italian citizenship. In many countries, especially South America, the estimates are very approximate as there is no census on its roots as it happens instead in USA or Canada.
It is also worth noting that these estimates refer to oriunda, so do not take account of Italians living abroad, surveyed from .
Main oriunda community of Italians in the World Notes
Brazil flag 25 million (approx. 13-14% pop. total) Italian-Brazilian (category)  
Argentina flag 20 million (ca. 50% pop. total) Italian-Argentinian (category)  
flag United States 17.8 million (approx. 6% pop. total) Italian Americans (category) 
flag France 1.5 - 3.5 million (approx. 2-8% pop. total) Italian-French (category)  
flag Canada 1.5 million (approx. 4.5% pop. total) Italian-Canadians (category) 
flag Uruguay 1.3 million (approx. 40% pop. total) Italian-Uruguayans (category)  
Venezuela flag 1 million (approx. 4% pop. total) Italo-Venezuelans (category)
flag Australia 850mila (ca. 4% pop. total) Italian-Australians (category) 
flag Germany 650 - 700mila (1% pop. total) Italian-German (category)
flag Switzerland 500 - 700mila (ca. 8-9% pop. total) Italian-Swiss (category)
Peru flag 500mila (ca. 1.8% pop. total) Italian-Peruvian (category) 
flag United Kingdom 300 - 500 thousand (<1% pop. total) Italian-British (category)
flag Belgium 290mila (ca. 3% pop. total) Italian-Belgian (category) 
flag Chile 150 thousand (<1% pop. total) Italo-Chilean (category) 
Costa Rica flag 120mila (approx. 2% pop. total) Italo-Costa Ricans (category)
Paraguay flag 100 thousand (approx. 1.5% pop. total) Italian-Paraguayan (category)
Italian film on migration
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In chronological order, are:
* The journey of hope (1950) by Pietro Germi with Raf Vallone
* I magliari (1959) by Francesco Rosi with Alberto Sordi: history of immigrants in Germany
* We are Italian Alexander J. Seiler helped by teachers and Rob Kovach June, CH 1964
* The gaucho (1964), Italian comedy that also the Italian emigrants in Argentina; players: Vittorio Gassman, Amedeo Nazzari and Nino Manfredi
* Handsome, honest, married fellow immigrant Australia illibata (1971), film di Luigi Zampa con Alberto Sordi and Claudia Cardinale
* Sacco and Vanzetti (film 1971) by Giuliano Montaldo con Gian Maria Volonti, Riccardo Cucciolla
* Bread and Chocolate (1973), the subject and the screenplay by Franco Brusati, with an extraordinary interpretation of Nino Manfredi.
* Emigration Nino Jacuss, CH 1978
* I fabbricasvizzeri (1978) by Rolf Lyssy: satirical film on forced
* Alamanya Alamanya, Germany Germany Hans Andreas Guttner, D 1979
* Return to the home of Nino Jacuss, CH 1980
* China Girl (1987) Abel Ferrara: story of emigrants in the U.S. of which one is engaged with a Chinese girl
* Mamma Lucia (miniseries) (1988), television miniseries in the U.S. is produced from the novel by Mario Puzo, directed by S. Cooper
* Fa 'la cosa giusta (1989) to Spike Lee interpreted by the same director with Danny Aiello and John Turturro: history of ethnic conflict between Italian Americans and Afro-Americans in New York
* In African continent (1993), the show also that the Italian emigrants in Kenya protagonist: Diego Abatantuono
* Lo zio d'America (1994)
* The Barber of Rio (1996), the show also that the Italian emigrants in Brazil, actor: Diego Abatantuono
* Terra Nostra (1999), soap opera produced in Brazil
* Blue (film) (2001), directed by Denis Rabaglia con Paolo Villaggio.
* How to America (2001), the RAI television miniseries with Sabrina Ferilli: history of emigrants from Polesine in Canada after the 1951 flood
* Wind of September (2002), Alexander J. Seiler
* Marcinelle (miniseries) 2003, RAI television miniseries on disaster Marcinelle
* The return of the land in 2004, television miniseries, to discuss with Sophia Loren and Sabrina Ferilli: history of immigrants in Canada
* Sacco and Vanzetti (miniseries) (2005) directed by Fabrizio Costa with Ennio Fantastichini and produced by Sergio Rubini mediaset
* Monongah, Marcinelle American (2006), documentary of the most serious accident at work in history that the U.S. is also the most mournful disaster in the history of Italian miners migrated
* Nuovomondo Emanuele Crialese, IT 2006, 120 min., IT / f, 16 mm, color, distribution: 01 Distribution. The Italian emigration during the twentieth century told through the story of a family of Sicily, the Mancuso.
* Merica F. Ferrone, M. Manzolini, F. Ragazzi, IT 2007, 65 min., Distribution map-Cantieri Sociali. Documentary on immigration in Italy and Brazil on the return of Brazil in Italy
* Favero, Luigi and gusset, Graziano. A century of Italian emigration (1876-1976). Csere. Rome, 1978.
* FILEF. Tales from the world, Ed.FILEF - 2007
* Mario Puzo. Mamma Lucia, 1971
* Gian Antonio Stella. The horde (when we were the Albanians), 2002
* Marazzi.Misteri Martin of Little Italy. Stories and texts of Italian American literature, 2003
* Sori, Ercole. The Italian emigration by the Second World War. Il Mulino. Bologna 1979
* Prejudice against Italians
* Red Passport
* Political asylum
* Southern Question
* Museo Regionale dell'Emigrazione "Pietro Conti" Gualdo Tadino (PG)
* Dell'Emigrazione Museo Regionale della Gente di Toscana - Castello di Lusuolo in Lunigiana
* Paolo Cresci Foundation - for the history of Italian.
* Emigration - emigrati.it
* We are all immigrants. The epic of Italian: the poverty, exploitation, racism.
* Italian Federation of Workers and Families Emigrants
* News emigration. Documents and news on emigration and immigration
* Italian Emigration Immigration
* DOCUMENTARY FILM sull 'MIGRATION
* Emigrants St.Georgen - Central italiano.org
* A.S.E.I. Italian Emigration Archives
* Felice Pedroni, an Italian emigrant in the gold rush in Alaska
* Site dedicated to issues of migration
v d m
Italiani in Africa: Italo-Tunisian Italo Italo-Egyptian-Moroccan-Algerian Italo Italo-South African
Italians in America: Italian Americans Italian-Argentine-Brazilian Italo Italo Italo-Chilean-Uruguayan-Peruvian Italo Italo Italo-Mexican-Canadian Italian-Venezuelan
Italians in Europe: Italo Italo-Swiss-French-German Italo Italo Italo-Belgian-British-Italian San Marino
Italians in Oceania / Asia: Italo Italo-Australian-New Zealand-Italian Lebanese
Italians in the former colonies of the Kingdom of Italy: Italo Italo-Libyan-Eritrean Italo Italo-Somali-Ethiopian
Retrieved from "http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emigrazione_italiana"
Category: Italian Emigration
|Contributed by: Text, Italian Wikipedia; machine translation, Google|
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Italy & Around the world (English translation)|
|Date: The 20th Century|
|Notes: Text, French Wikipedia; machine translation by Google
Italian emigration and immigration
The Italy of the late nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth century the century is rather a land of emigration and a reservoir to labor for the more industrialized countries of Europe, but also the States United States, it is now, one of the main "gateway" to Europe for immigrants from the African continent in particular, countries of Eastern Europe and former Yugoslavia, as well a destination for these migrants.
The great migration
Once accomplished Italian Unity, the new Kingdom of Italy beginning, like other European powers, the industrial revolution. Italy is struggling to catch up with the already more advanced countries such as Germany or France, also suffering from a lack of energy materials, including coal, which is essential during this period.
Date on which the value of industrial production exceeded the value of agricultural production  - Date on which the number of workers employed in the industry has exceeded the number of workers employed in agriculture --
United Kingdom 1820 United Kingdom 1841
France 1845 Belgium 1890
United States 1879 Netherlands 1890
Germany 1890 Germany 1907
Norway 1900 United States 1920
Sweden 1900 Sweden 1920
Denmark 1925 Denmark 1950
Italy 1935 France 1954
Accentuated by the demographic transition, leading to overcrowding in the countryside and the transformation of agrarian structures, Italy will face several major waves of emigration.
First wave: 1880-1914, the opening of the main channels of migration 
The modern Italy which arose between 1860 and 1870 with the annexation of the southern half of the peninsula (the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies), then the final annexation of Papal States consists of 15 million inhabitants North plus 9 million of southerners (7 of the southern peninsula and in Sicily 2). Thus, in 1870, Italy has approximately 25 million (against about 40 million in Germany and around 30 million in the United Kingdom) . During the unification of Italy, Naples - former capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies - becomes the largest city in the country and for a number of years. In 1900, Italy has just over 32 million.
A large part of Italy when unification is rural and in 1861, almost 70% of the population are farmers. Unification broke the feudal system: from the Middle Ages and especially in the south, the land was the inalienable property of aristocrats, religious organizations or the king. The breakdown of feudalism and the redistribution of land does not allow small farmers to live from their production. Many have only tiny plots to be divided over the succession heritage . Italy does not produce enough food, the main cause is the lack of capital and their misuse, the rich landowners rather than improving their lands, prefer to acquire or invest in new capacity, which is the best sign of social progress. The impact of policy on health is important, in 1880, by the lack of programming plans for wetlands, 600 000 people are affected by malaria and in the countryside north of pellagra develops caused by poverty and malnutrition causing 104 000 cases.
From the late 1880s, Italy has particularly severe period of crisis characterized as "the darkest years of the Italian economy" by the historian G. Luzzatto, caused by three major events:
1. The commercial break with France
2. An agricultural crisis (aggravated by the breakdown above)
3. A real estate and banking crisis.
It was in this gloomy economic climate that begins the first mass exodus of Italians from abroad. At the same time forced by socio-economic transformations underway in the north of the Italian peninsula which affect land ownership, some farmers will be solicited by the mines and industries close industrialized European countries like France, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Luxembourg (mechanical, steel, textile) ... already missing labor.
The General Directorate of Statistics has started its first official study on emigration only from 1876. The figures show how emigration has increased dramatically:
Italian emigration by region 1876-1915
Extrapolating from the 25 million inhabitants of Italy at the time of unification, fertility and mortality, without taking into account emigration, the population should reach about 65 million in 1970 then it was, because of emigration at the beginning of the century, only 54 million .
Between 1876 and 1900 there were already over 220 000 annual Italian departures.
The average migration rate of only 8 ? in 1894, will rise to 10 ? in 1900, before peaking at 25 ? (ie 2.5% of total population) in 1913 with nearly 875 000 departures outside . In all, between 1900 and 1915, it will be more than 8 million Italians will leave the Kingdom .
Emigration is not specifically controlled by the state. The migrants are often in the hands of officials concerned with their interests. The abuse led to a law first passed in 1888 to place emigration agencies under the control of the State .
The Law n.23 of 31 January 1901 creates a Commission to emigration which aims to grant licenses to carriers, fixed costs of tickets, order at ports of embarkation, monitoring health conditions for youth, the establishment of hostels and care facilities, and agreements with host countries to help take care of those arriving. This includes discussions on labor legislation in the U.S. it discriminates against foreign workers (1885) and even suspend, for a time, emigration to Brazil, where many emigrants are in unacceptable conditions [ 7]. All these measures promote emigration.
The movement of emigration almost all regions, including the most dynamic, as the Lombardy, Liguria, Italy plant. Although some of these rates are nevertheless lower than the average, since most populous, this northern Italian who provides a significant proportion of migrants to Europe, and south to the Americas.
Emigration to France
Retail icon Main article: History of immigration in France.
Factors that have contributed to the Italian emigration in France are many, France, which tends to contain the growth of its population can not rely on neighboring countries like Belgium or Switzerland, which, on the french model, have a economic development more than Italy . France, whose development was earlier required to support its industrial development and colonial labor. The territorial proximity is an added bonus as well as the position of a host that France has traditionally been held in respect of political refugees.
The first wave of Italian emigration began in the late nineteenth century, notably in Savoy, with the arrival of peasants from Friuli, Piedmont, Genoa. After the first world war, a new wave is comprised of migrants driven by poverty and political refugees. Clashes with the existing population (especially because of rising unemployment in the thirties). The last wave moves in the fifties and sixties.
That northern Italy which provides the bulk of the workforce, particularly the Piedmont with 30% of migrants followed by Lombardy (20%) and Emilia Romagna (10%). The main settlements are near the borders, the Alpes-Maritimes (20%), Var (10%) and the Bouches-du-Rh?ne (12%) with Corsica is the third of the population transalpine . The second cluster consists of the departments close to the alpine zone with the Rh?ne, Savoie, Haute-Savoie and Is?re. The third pole is the Seine, which has 24 000 Italians in 1896. Only after the first World War that new areas attract migrants, Lorraine, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Aquitaine (Lot-et-Garonne), the Gers.
Italian presence in France
In 1900, the Italians beyond for the first time the number of Belgians and in 1911 they became the first foreign group in France, at that time, they constitute 36% of migrants and 1% of the population .
In 2008, approximately four million French people of Italian origin .
In the mid-1880s, over 50% of departures are to the Americas, including the 3 main destinations are the United States but also Brazil and Argentina. The inhabitants of the Mezzogiorno are the main migrants to attempt the adventure across the Atlantic, with nearly 70% of departures to the Americas between 1900 and 1914.
Italian Emigrants - annual averages: Date Destinations transoceanic Total Percentage
1886 - 1890 221,669 131,005 59%
1891 - 1895 256,510 147,443 57%
1896 - 1900 310,434 161,901 52%
1901 - 1904  510012 ... ...
1905 - 1907 739,661 458,303 62%
1908 486,674 228,573 47%
1909 - 1913 679,152 404,942 60%
1914 459,152 233,214 51%
The United States [change]
Icon Retail article: Italian Immigration to the United States and Ellis Island.
Italians in Mulberry Street, Manhattan: one of the streets of Little Italy.
In the United States, many of them do not stay long: 20% to 30% return in Italy. They are forced to accept positions in physically arduous and most dangerous. They live in conditions that Americans themselves have never tolerated. In the 1890s, Italians accounted for 90% of employees of Public Works of the City of New York and half of them are handlers. Or 60% of these workers were former farmers or sharecroppers accustomed to hard work, as demonstrated by a study conducted in 1903 for the City of New York.
The influx of Italians generates a wave of violence among Americans since long established in the territory, according to them responding to stereotypes (they are said dirty, illiterate, dangerous agitators, anarchists, etc.).. After the assassination of police chief of New Orleans by a member of the Mafia, in March 1891, the Italians are the focus of demonstrations across the country. Therefore, the United States are beginning to question the problems linked to immigration of populations, including Southern and Eastern Europe.
Icon Retail article: Italian Immigration in Brazil.
In Brazil, between 1870 and 1920 this migration took nearly 1, 25 million people, mainly in coffee plantations in the region of Sao Paulo. According to the Italian Embassy in Bras?lia, 25 million Brazilians are descendants of Italian immigrants. This population is regarded as the most important oriunde ( "descendants of Italians") outside of Italy.
Italian immigration to Brazil, by region of origin (1876-1920) 
Migration within Europe Industrial 
As of 1880, as we saw earlier, mining and power industries in Europe (including France, Belgium and Germany) lack of manpower in the coming draw landless peasant families, in northern Italy . These workers are unskilled in these countries in other jobs such as road works, railways, building. These emigrants settled in France, Belgium, and Germany, found mainly in the valleys of the Meuse and the Moselle (France), Ruhr (Germany) and Wallonia (Belgium-Borinage) and in a few large industrial cities (Paris, Lyon, Marseille).
When the war of 1914-1918 thousands of Italians were dismissed European countries and many were forced to return, often in the countryside north of the peninsula, where their family, or if engage in the army.
As described by Fran?ois Cipollone in a lecture at the Festival of Geography in Saint-Die, "This massive return to the homeland, some have returned to enlist in the army, reminded many of fellow that 's they were trans-they were not stateless. They were the "other Italy" which had done little to not participate in the development of the country, the inflow of foreign currency. It can be both a world citizen and a citizen of his country, his village. "
An estimated 350 to 000 emigrants who passed through the station of Milan between July and August 1914. This will result in slow but not stop, migration started: it does not leave that 1.1 million of Italians during the 4 years (against 2.7 during the previous 5 years). The majority of them migrate to the Americas.
Some authors were able to demonstrate an influx of capital in the peninsula due to the money saved by the emigrants. Between 1891 and 1900, more than 249 million lire are repatriated each year. This capital had the effect of bringing the new money on the Italian market and the possibility to give the country not only the means to maintain its exports, without increasing excessively the disequilibrium in its balance of payments, but to indirectly strengthen the value of the lira on international financial markets.
Efforts to limit the immigration and emigration Italian in the world 
After the First World War, Italian European immigrants who had returned home during the conflict returned with their families, often enlarged in the meantime. Other Italian families follow, moving in the same places that migrants in the first wave, close to the industries and mines in northern Europe, faced with the reconstruction and the disappearance of main-d ' work due to 4 years of conflict, but also in rural areas as farmers, particularly as in the south of France.
In the United States, the Congress vote Quota Act that are allowed to immigrate to the United States than 3% of nationalities present on American soil in 1910. In 1924, Congress strengthened the law by passing the National Origins Act, which are allowed to immigrate only 2% of each community as it was in 1890. This law was enacted to avoid the massive emigration of people in the South and Eastern Europe.
The arrival to power of fascism in Italy will effectively cut ties with some host countries such as Brazil, at the same time the government of Benito Mussolini began to control the movement of people who leave the country.
Mussolini regulates and oversees all internal migration and external, and encourages children and advocates a return to the motherland. Even with a policy of prestige and arming supposed relaunch the Italian economy, it fails to arrest the movement of people. Thus, while this array does not prevent the departure of some 2.6 million emigrants many opponents of the fascist regime.
Faced with the closure of borders as the United States and Brazil (with the policy of "anti-migration of fascism"), these migrants adjust their strategies and go to countries such as France and Argentina that remain open. Both countries host 45% and 20% of Italian immigrants during the two wars. In France there are over 800 000 Italian nationals to be counted in the census of 1931.
During the crisis of 30 years, industries massively redundant, some regions / countries of Italian immigrants return to their ground. Others adapt, as in the Moselle, where, despite the recession, some of them still working on the Maginot Line.
With the start of the Second World War, many immigrants settled in Europe will have to return to their families in Italy. There are about 150 000 Italians who came from France. But during this period, vessels continue, since the ports of Genoa or Naples, to fuel immigration to the United States, although become more restrictive.
Beginning in 1945, last great wave of Italian migration
At the end of the war, Italy is the only developed country that has not completed its demographic transition. Thus, it enjoys a large workforce, but also better trained than at the beginning of the century, often remaining inactive. At a time when all other countries are in the era of reconstruction, this workforce Italy began to be popular in other European countries but also in Argentina. The Italian state will try to "sell" its emigrants to the highest bidder. For example, with Belgium, where, on 23 June 1946, was signed in Rome, the Memorandum of Economic Agreement between Italy and Belgium, for sending 50 000 Italian workers against the supply of three million tons of coal annually and with Germany in 1955 which is guaranteed by the mutual commitment to migration which brings nearly 3 million Italians across the border to seek "fortune."
These agreements are part of the change trajectories of post-war destinations outside Europe crashing: The United States will accept, based on 50 years, that family reunification and Latin America is in full economic and political crisis.
France, alone, receives up to the mid-1970s 1.8 million immigrants became transalpine and since the 1930s, the first host country. Italians in this country are now "invisible": "they are welcomed as cousins a little turbulent, but frequent. But this country is progressively moved to other destinations such as Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland, where working conditions and wages are better. The Italy of the late 1950s had its boom economico, "born of the re-establishment of an industry little affected by the war, an injection of money, and especially the demand in Western Thirty Glorieuses, cheap Italian products (favored by low wages and the beginning of the opening up of Europe).
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, 600 000 Italian citizens are fourth generation in Germany especially original Sicilian, Calabrian and Apulian while 500 000 in Switzerland plus the Venetians and ?milien . Many have a dual passport and can vote in both nations.
In Belgium and Switzerland, the Italian community remains the largest foreign representation although many have returned to Italy at retirement, often the children and grandchildren remained in the country of birth where they now have their roots.
Internal migration are high during the 1950s and 1960s, they are essentially of two types:
1. The movement of rural youth to cities for reasons of study.
2. The move to the industrial cities of the north-west by young boys with a low level of education. Women migrate in a second time following the principle of family reunification.
Since 1995, the institute SVIMEZ (Institute of Development mezzogiorno) began to observe the recovery of internal emigration. The origin of the flow continues to move parts of the Mezzogiorno, but the destination is to the north-east and part of the center. The most active are the East Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Umbria.
People of Italian origin
* Brazil: 25 million .
* Argentina: 18 million 
* United States: 16 million 
* France: 1.5 million 
* Canada: 1.3 million
* Uruguay: 1 million 
* Australia: 1 million
* Germany: almost 1 million.
Anti-Italianism related to immigration 
Italophobie The phenomenon is especially present in countries in North America and northern Europe characterized by a large Italian immigration to cover the economic sectors considered painful, such as minors and the local people refused for health reasons and social conveniences.
Some historical examples
* In 1890 in New Orleans were lynched eleven Italians, Sicilians all accused of killing the police chief urban .
* In August 1893 Aigues-Mortes is the scene of conflict between french and Italian workers employed in the salt Pecci, ending with nine dead and hundreds wounded among Italian workers. The tension which followed almost the two countries to war .
* The New York Times "published on 1 January 1894" We have in our city about 30 000 Italians from almost all of the Neapolitan province where up to recently, the robbery was the domestic industry. There is nothing strange in that these thugs continue their original "violence is presented as an imported product associated with the culture and tradition of Italian immigrants .
* During the trial of Italian anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti in Boston in 1927, the sentiment against immigrants in Italy appears evident and contributes to be the decisive factor in their death sentence.
Terms used to name the Italians  
* Maccarone (utilizzato negli anni'50 e'60 in Belgio Minatori italiani contro i)
* Spagettifresser (mangespaghetti in German speaking countries. Fressen means that the animal eats)
* Los Polpettoes
* But (in Switzerland eating polentapolentone)
* Greaseball (in the United States, for the cleanliness and mode of brilliantine)
Dago * (in the United States, used for Latin, Diego or dagger, knife)
* Gino (for women: Gina)
* Guido (female: Guidetti)
Goombah * (in the New York area, the Italian compare, through dialect cumpa)
* Wop (the Neapolitan guappo)
* Wog (used against all people of dark skin but not black)
Itaka * (in Germany, play on words between Italy and Itaca referring to vagrants)
* Italian technician
* Carcamano (Brazil, means evil, thief, action overloading the balance with the hand)
* Tschinggali (in Switzerland, in late nineteenth century, the transcript of his five!, Used in a game practiced by the Italians)
* Minghiaweisch (in Switzerland to the Italian second generation)
* Tony (in the United States with the intention of highlighting this very common surname and also a play on words, Antonio Tony = = TO NY NY At translation = he who comes to New York)
Italy, a destination of the post-war
The most massive arrivals of immigrants on Italian soil are a recent phenomenon that began in the 1970s, from the time when Italy is experiencing strong economic growth period.
Since the 60s, there is the first post-colonial migration (with the return of Italian Libya, Africa's north-east, coupled with the departure of some populations in Ethiopia, Eritrean and Somali) and the return of Italian emigrants Latin America (during the economic crisis and political crisis in this region at the time), began to announce the phenomenon.
The implementation of migration to Italy
As we have seen above, with the emergence of political crises (decolonization), and economic (including South America), migrants or descendants of Italian migrants, returning to the country experiencing a booming economy, called often "Italian economic miracle" (or miracolo economico economico boom by many economists, the GDP rising by 6.1% per year on average in the 50 years and 5.8% in 60 years, driven by industrial production, the only equivalent being Japan).
With the economic crisis, which occurred after the boom, from mid-70s, the main countries of immigration from Northern Europe will try to "close" their borders gradually. Italy became a land with few constraints, as it has so far no legislation and practices, to control the flow of entries (unlike its neighbors). Moreover being a tourist area, it facilitates the influx of people seeking work and willing to accept a situation of irregularity.
The arrival of these migrants is not limited by the relative poverty of these people between their country of departure and the Italian soil, but also by the new demands of the economy and the host society who need labor, especially for low-skilled work.
Some seasonal sectors such as hospitality, agriculture, construction will soon appeal to those 60-70 years of foreign labor cost, due to the recent disappearance of the poorest of the Mezzogiorno, in internal flows south-north. Since the 80s, there are a large number of immigrants living in provinces such as Tuscany, Campania, Lazio ... accepting precarious work, due to the irregularity of their situation. These flows without increasing or political forces, nor the Italian public opinion can move them particularly. No special measures will be taken in relation to this phenomenon before 1986. So far the measures concerning the entry and stay of foreigners in Italy are based on texts by 1931.
In 1986 the first measures designed to regulate foreigners already present in Italy and plan the flow to come. In 1989 the law was passed Martelli (named after the interior minister at the time), which lays the foundations for immigration control and permits at the same time the regularization of about 700 000 foreigners.
Once the borders of Italy are starting to close also taking entries mostly clandestine routes (especially from North Africa and Albania), which will take place during the 1990s to several adjustments.
Historical flow of migrants since the 1980s 
In the words of Clara Gallini, in his article on racism in Italy: "Italy is facing the influx of a cheap labor, which was dispersed in various regions to occupy multiple functions. In Sicily, North Africa hope onto fishing boats, in Campania, foreigners with different backgrounds are waiting to be hired as seasonal agricultural workers and live in crowded slums [...]. In large cities the unemployed and homeless shelter seeking shelter in temporary dormitories while maids South American or from the Philippines, are sleeping on sofas lounges and entrust their children to nurseries solidarity. Small industries in the north, benefiting from recent economic boom, there is a small number of workers dispersed but steadily increasing. In Tuscany, a minority of Chinese organized in craft workshops. Everywhere, you see the squares and street vendors beaches north African and Senegalese, "nomads" in search of a more sedentary lifestyle always precarious. Perhaps fewer, certainly the most visible, they already have a name: vu'cumpra ', "you want to buy? "[...]"
Since the 1980s, there has been an intensification of arrivals from the south shore of the Mediterranean. For Tunisians already present in the agricultural south of the peninsula, and stabilize, in addition Moroccans, Egyptians (characterized by a migration path much more stable, whose destination is almost exclusively the major urban areas, Milan in particular) and, especially from the 1990s, Algerians. But it was the Moroccan community which has risen to become the largest until the early 2000s (see doc3).
The 1980 is also the front of immigration from sub-Saharan Africa, previously ad hoc basis. Especially in West Africa that supplies these flows can be distinguished among them migrants from Senegal, C?te d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Nigeria ... At the same time, immigration for the jobs of domestic work intensifies, aliens already present in Asia (Philippines ...) also added South America (Peru ...).
But the 1990s was characterized not only by the consolidation of existing migratory flows but also by the sudden appearance of new developments in all countries of Western Europe, related to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the demise of the Soviet regime .
The arrival of thousands of Albanians during the spring and summer 1991 in the port of Bari symbolizes the opening of this new "frontier" Eastern.
Foreigners today on Italian soil
Today, with the opening of Europe to the east, the European continent is in the first place (with 47.9%) followed distantly by Africa (23.5%) in terms of foreign . After the last adjustment, the ranking of nationalities change significantly. Following the disappearance of visas for Romanians, requests for regulation by the latter represent a fifth of all applications for residence permits (150 000). Thus, the Romanian community has become the most important, while Morocco and Albania in 2003 are far behind, even if they show a slight increase.
The main nationalities in Italy
in 2000  - The main nationalities in Italy
in 2003  --
Morocco 149 500 Romania 239 426
115 Albania 800 Albania 233 616
Philippines 61 000 Morocco 227 940
54 Serbia 700 Ukraine 112 802
Romania 51 600 China 100 109
United States 47 600 Philippines 73 847
China 47 100 Poland 65 847
000 Tunisia 44 Tunisia 60 572
37 Senegal 400 Senegal 47 762
Germany 35 400 India 47 170
Sri Lanka 29 900 Peru 46 964
28 Ecuador 300 Egypt 45 859
Poland 27 700 Egypt 44 798
Peru 26 500 Sri Lanka 41 539
India 25 600 --
Other countries 470 000 --
Total 1 252 000
1 409 251
Which EU 145 800 --
As can be seen in the previous tables, Italy played a key role in the immigration of people from Africa, including North Africa, Moroccan in 2001 are the first foreign population of the peninsula, with nearly 150 000 citizens, mainly distributed in provinces of northern Italy (see map). There are also Tunisiens (44 000 foreigners), Egyptians, but Algerians and Libyans.
The distribution of foreigners in the area revealed today a large proportion of foreigners legally in large urban and industrial areas and a significant presence in the predominantly agricultural areas or when informal trade is developed (see map Distribution of immigrants settled in Italy in 2002).
In 2005, in Italy there were almost 2.8 million foreigners, but this figure only refers to official presence and do not take account of the clandestine estimated between 300 000 and 400 000 people. This figure however includes foreigners from the most developed countries like the United States, Switzerland, France ...
The consequences of this recent immigration
The confused and lax policy of the Italian government in the mid-90 opens a debate between political parties, some consider it as to stop this "invasion." Some political parties like the League Lombarde believes that only the repression that can stop this phenomenon. Nevertheless, the Northern League in this immigration, the legitimacy of their old separatist claims between north and south, the Mezzogiorno, as is the land of origin of several mafia involved in this illegal immigration. But those reserves will not prevent the Berlusconi government in 2002 to proceed with the regularization of over 700 000 illegal immigrants.
If governments act by "realism", regardless of their political currents, the public as a whole is sensitive to the risks of spillage associated with these ins?curitaires immigrants, conveyed by the media ignoring the economic role that they deserve. The Romanian daily Cotianul estimated that migrants from countries that contribute about 11 billion euros per year to the country's wealth and the headline on the front of 6 November 2007: " 'Romani di merda' produ 11 billion pe an in Italia. "
Italy is also the European country with the largest number of foreigners homeless. Thus a country with the number of immigrants is higher than that of Italian among the homeless. In general, there is a dualism of important real estate market that shows a process of social exclusion, characterized by a real discrimination in access to housing. Indeed, migrants are reserved dwellings in poor condition, those we do not even propose to the Italian and in addition, at exorbitant prices: it is low, that housing located downstairs of floor or at least dark and unhealthy in central cities or the worst housing urban peripheries. The housing is very popular among the illegal immigrants: disused factories and abandoned farms and shantytowns like Villa Literno in Caserta, called the "ghetto", which was burned in 1995.
The gradual integration of immigrants in Italian society
It is observed that the adjustments made by the various governments have had the effect each time to create new calls illegal. Indeed, after obtaining the papers, those aliens are leaving the jobs they once were, faute de mieux. And in many cases, the professional integration of migrants is neglected in activities by the Italians and the Anglo-Saxon sociology defined by three D: dirty, dangerous, demanding (dirty, dangerous, difficult).
These immigrants are trying to gradually integrate into Italian society, supported by NGOs and the church (still very influential in Italy) with Caritas for example, requesting a better policy of family reunification, the recognition of rights and access to citizenship.
Two examples illustrate the process of stabilization and integration within the Italian company set up by migrants in the absence of an effective integration policy:
* First, include the increasing role of self-employment of migrants. Foreign entrepreneurs are only 170 000 in the peninsula (see document 6), a figure that has doubled since the late 90s. The most popular sectors are construction, food (especially exotic), crafts, services (call centers), agriculture and construction.
It says: Already 170 000 of them have established their business - 30 000 in Lombardy, Moroccan in mind.
Source: Il Sole 24 Ore, 7 February 2005
* Another index of stabilization of foreign populations: the presence of families (there was an increase in family reunification and residence permits for family reasons, or 400 000 residence permits, 60% in the North) and especially the presence of minors . These are the data on the education of minors who stress the extremely rapid evolution of the foreign presence: in the early 1990s there were only 180 000 in 2004 were 420 000 (see document 7).
It says: The school record in the class of aliens - 420 000. In the north, 7 / 100 are not Italians.
Source: La Repubblica, 10 September 2005
Development of racism in the Italian population 
Italy, until the 1970s, was much more a land of emigration and immigration, although small groups of foreign (minority) were already on their soil. The absence of any legislation to control these flows from the time when these foreigners are becoming increasingly important, in addition to the image portrayed by the media, the people concerned.
At the end of 80 years, Italy is faced with the violence first so-called "racist". For example, in Naples on 20 June 1989, a man armed with a gun, leaves home and takes on a Moroccan: "They are niggers, I do not want here! He had four as neighbors, which exasp?rait. Newspapers provide information without giving it much importance. But the media are much more fond of violence in the opposite direction ...
Attempted homicide explicit motivate a series of alarming. On 23 December 1991 in Bologna, two to four young armed approaching a nomad camp and killing two women. Momentum a few days later, in a nomad camp, then in Jesi, where a girl is injured by two of shotgun. The Bologna is claimed by a "white Europe" in Rome by the racist tract. Beyond their consequences, these episodes appear to be very serious as they appear to refer to more structured forms of paramilitary and fascist, as they exist in the countries of Northern Europe.
Migration policy limited
In first place in Europe that the Italian policy vis-?-vis immigration is disputed. The various parties that have succeeded in power for 90 years, have made many adjustments as we have seen previously. At a ministerial meeting in Cannes in 1995, the European partners have tried to put pressure on Italy to abandon such policies. The reason is hidden in the era of "closed borders" against immigration, the main receiving countries (Germany, France, United Kingdom ...) fear that Italy is only a step migration: Italy is a member of the Schengen area, foreigners who obtain a regularization can move and settle in their own desires or needs in this space.
Moreover, like Spain, part of their peninsula and the difficulty of monitoring all of their coastline, Italy is one of the doors of illegal immigration (see map of illegal immigrants in Europe). The main flow comes mainly from Albania, Tunisia and Turkey. But north of the country is developing a clandestine immigration from the former communist countries of Eastern Europe to Italy but also other European countries. Faced with the demands of its European partners, it is difficult for authorities to monitor all these flows, as many entries are in the territory.
Especially the conflict from different communities, leading to a climate of insecurity that worry people. The debate was notably revived recently with the discovery of a 47-year-old Roman murdered near a Gypsy camp, the main suspect is an immigrant Romanian 24ans and at a time when the Italian Ministry of the Interior publishes its figures confirm an increase in crime in the territory. This noise is often attributed to gangs of all nationalities (the most mentioned being the Albanian mafia, Romanian, etc. ..) that control the bulk of flights to the tire or trafficking of all kinds.
Since that case, the Italian government decreed the expulsion of immigrant offenders (including Romania), even if they are citizens. As the headline in the Romanian daily Cotidianul in its issue of 5 November 2007: the authorities are trying to react before the voters did not participate in politics, the Italian press (La Stampa, Il Sole-24 Ore ,...) s' greatly inspired by the example of the failure of election in 2002 in France.
Italy, since its unification in the nineteenth century, was one of the main suppliers of labor from northern European countries but also countries of the Americas (North and South). Long flow of migrants have settled around the world with varying degrees of difficulty.
From the years 1960 - 70, departures are offset by the arrival, first of migrant families returning to the country then, after 80 years, populations of North Africa and Equatorial to overcome the lack of -d 'poor low-skilled work and necessary for certain activities (including agriculture). Not prepared for this reversal of situation, Italy has struggled to find its own immigration policy. The Italian model of its first known limits in the late 1980s who struggle to coexist people of these new populations and essential to key sectors of local economies in the country.
But aging increasingly important to the Italian population (having now a natural balance negative, -0.5 ? in 2005 according to Eurostat), immigration will appear increasingly as a necessity. Italy could become a major country was faced with all the migration of the last two centuries: economic migration from the late nineteenth early twentieth century, emigration policy during fascism and economic migration in the late twentieth century.
For the original text with references see French Wikipedia, "Emigration et Immigration Italienne."
|Contributed by: Text, French Wikipedia; machine translation by Google |
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