From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Map of Italy, location of Veneto highlighted
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
NUTS Region ITD
President Giancarlo Galan (PdL)
Area 18,391 km? (7,101 sq mi)
(Ranked 8th, 6.0 %)
Population 4,869,694 (08/2008)
(Ranked 5th, 8.1 %)
- Density 265 /km? (686 /sq mi)
GDP/ Nominal ? 139 billion (2006)
Veneto or Venetia (V?neto), is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is about 4.8 million, and its capital is Venice. Once the cradle of the renowned Venetian Republic, then a land of mass emigration, Veneto is today among the wealthiest and most industrialized regions of Italy. It is also the most visited region of Italy, with about 60 million tourists every year (2007). Besides Italian, most Venetian people speak Venetian.
Tre Cime di Lavaredo.
The Piave River.
The Venetian Lagoon at sunset.
Veneto is the eighth largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,364 km2. It is rough a polygonal of around 210 km in length (from the Austrian border to the mouth of the Po) and a breadth of around 195 km (from the Eastern shore of Lake Garda to the mouth of the river Tagliamento.
Veneto is one of the most varied regions of Italy in its morphology, roughly divisible into four areas: the northern Alpine zone, the hill zone, the lower plain and the coastal territory. 29% of its surface is mountainous (the Carnic Alps, eastern Dolomites and Venetian Prealps), whilst 57% is covered by a vast plain reaching unto the sea, broken only by the hill regions of Colli Berici, Colli Euganei, Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. Several of the most important rivers in Italy cross through the region (the Po, Adige, Brenta, Bacchiglione, Livenza, Piave, and Tagliamento), and it possesses the eastern shore of the largest lake in the country (Lake Garda). The Adriatic Sea bathes over 200 km of its coastline, of which 100 km are beaches.
To the north the border perches on a mountainous crest, which is not a single unified ridge, but instead breaks up, forming a chain of distinct massifs separated by valleys. The Dolomites contain the highest alpine peaks, and are famous for their individual rocky outcrops: the Marmolada (the highest mountain of the region, at 3342 m), the Tofane, the Tre Cime di Lavaredo, and the Pale di San Martino are the most well-known ranges.
The Venetian Prealps are composed of minor ranges of between 700 and 2200m. A distinctive characteristic of this chain are the cave formations: the caves, chasms and potholes are a constant source of wonder and delight to both Italian and foreign speleologists. Highlight of these is the Spluga della Preta, situated in the Monte Lessini chain in the province of Verona: with an explored depth of 985 m it holds the record for caves in Italy. Fossil deposits are also abundant here.
The hills of the Lake Garda, the Colli Lessini, Colli Berici, Colli Euganei, the Montello and the hills of Treviso which arise to separate the mountainous regions from the plains provide many aspects. Particularly adapted for viniculture, the hills are covered with vineyards which produce wines of high quality and renown. Dotted with castles and aristocratic houses, witnesses to the level of appreciation in past times for the exquisite countryside, climate and, in certain zones, the thermal spas.
The Venetian plain is divided into two distinct zones: the higher plain, gravel-strewn and not very fertile, and the lower plain, rich in water sources and arable terrain. This plain is simultaneously the mainstay of agricultural production and the urban magnet of the region. Its cities and villages have successfully wedded economic and social development with the safeguarding of traditional culture and the rich historic and artistic heritage, to the effect that tourism in the Veneto plays a role of prime importance.
The coast is characterized by the presence of the Venetian Lagoon: the terrain is flat, with ponds, marshes and islands which are formed due to the flatness of the land and the richness of water. The Po Delta, formed of recently reclaimed land, contains large expanses of sandbars and dunes along the coastline. These lands have been gained for cultivation thanks to a system of canals and dykes and water-scooping machines. Some areas have been transformed into valleys for fish. The entire territory is a stopping-point for migratory birds.
The climate changes significantly between one area to another. Continental on the plains, the climate is milder along the Adriatic coast, around Lake Garda and in the hilly areas. The lowlands are often covered by thick fog. Precipitations are scarce (750 mm. /year) next to river Po River, more abundant (750-1,100 mm./year) at higher altitudes; the highest values (up to 3,200 mm./year) are recorded in the Bellunese Prealps, near Pasubio and on the Asiago plateau.
Between the 2nd and 1st millennium B.C., the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According to ancient historians, the Veneti (sometimes called the Paleoveneti), came from Paphlagonia in Asia Minor at the time of the Fall of Troy, led by prince Antenor, a comrade of Aeneas. In the 7th-6th centuries B.C. the local populations of Veneto entered into contact with the Etruscans and the Greeks. Venetic culture reached a highpoint during the 4th century B.C. These ancient Venetians spoke Venetic, an Indo-European language akin to, but distinct from Latin and the other Italic languages. Meanwhile, the Venetians prospered through their trade in amber and were well-known for their breeding of horses. Este, Padua, Oderzo, Adria, Vicenza, Verona, and Altino became centers of Venetic culture. However, over time, the Venetians began to adopt the dress and certain other customs of their Celtic neighbors.
The Tetrarchs were the four co-rulers who governed the Roman Empire as long as Diocletian's reform lasted. Here they are portrayed embracing, in a posture of harmony, in a porphyry sculpture dating from the 4th century, produced in Asia Minor, located today on a corner of St Mark's Basilica in Venice.
During the third century B.C., the Veneti, together with the Cenomani Celts on their western border, sided with the Romans as Rome expanded and struggled against the Insubrii and Boii Celts. During the Second Punic War (218 B.C. ? 202 B.C.), the Venetians even sent a contingent of soldiers to fight alongside the Romans against Hannibal and the invading Carthaginians and Venetians were among those slaughtered at the Battle of Cannae (216 B.C.). In 181 B.C., a Roman triumvirate of Publius Scipio Nasica, Caius Flaminius, and Lucius Manlius Acidinus led three thousand families, mainly from Samnium but supplemented by native Veneti, to found a Latin colony at Aquileia as a base to protect the territory of the Venetians from incursions of the hostile Carni and Istri. From then on, Roman influence over the area increased. Thus, in 169 B.C. more colonizing families were sent from Rome to Aquileia. In 148 B.C. the Via Postumia was completed connecting Aquileia to Genua. In 131 B.C., the Via Annia joined Adria to Patavium to Altinum to Concordia to Aquileia. Gradually, the Roman Republic transformed its alliance with the Venetians into a relationship of dominance. After the 91 B.C. Italic rebellion, the cities of the Veneti, together with the rest of Transpadania, were granted partial rights of Roman citizenship according to the Lex Pompeia Transpadanis. Later in 49 B.C., by the Lex Rubria de Gallia Rome granted full Roman citizenship to the Veneti. The Via Claudia was completed in 46 B.C. and connected Altinum, Tarvisium, Feltria and Tridentum (modern Trent). From Tridentum it continued northwards to Pons Drusus and southwards to Verona and Mutina (modern Modena). After the Battle of Philippi (42 B.C.), which ended the Roman Civil War, the lands of the Veneti, together with the rest of Cisalpine Gaul, ceased to be a province and the territory of the Veneti, which included modern Friuli, became region X (Venetia et Istria) of a new entity named Italia (Italy). Aquileia became its capital. Meanwhile, under the Pax Romana, Patavium (modern Padua) became one of the most important cities of northern Italy. Other Venetic cities such as Opitergium (modern Oderzo), Tarvisium (modern Treviso), Feltria (modern Feltre), Vicetia (modern Vicenza), Ateste (modern Este), and Altinum (modern Altino) adopted the Latin language and the culture of Rome. Thus, by the end of the first century A.D., Latin had finally displaced the original Venetic language.
In 166 A.D. the Quadi and Marcomanni invaded Venetia. It was the first invasion of the barbarians. In the fifth century, both Alaric the Goth and then Attila and the Huns devastated the area. Attila laid siege to Aquileia and turned it into a ruin in 452 A.D. Many of the mainland inhabitants sought protection in the nearby lagoons which would become Grado in the east and Venice more to the west. On the heels of the Huns came the Ostrogoths who not only invaded, but also settled down in the region. During the mid-sixth century, Justinian reconquered Venetia for the Eastern Roman Empire. An Exarch was established at Ravenna while a military tribune was set up in Oderzo. Byzantine rule would not last long. Starting in 568 A.D, the Lombards crossed the Julian Alps. These invaders subdivided the territory of Venetia into numerous feuds ruled by Germanic dukes and counts (essentially creating the division of Veneto from Friuli). The invasion provoked another wave of migration from the mainland to the Byzantine controlled coast and islands. In 667, A.D. the Lombards conquered the Byzantine base at Oderzo and took possession of practically all of Veneto (and Friuli) except for Venice and Grado. The 36 Lombard duchies included Ceneda, Treviso, Verona, and Vicenza. A reminder of Lombard rule can be seen in the place names beginning with the word Farra.
Horses of Saint Mark, brought as loot from Constantinople in 1204.
By the middle of the eight century, the Franks had assumed political control of the region and the mainland of Veneto became part of the Carolingian Empire. Though politically dominant these Germanic invaders were gradually absorbed into the Venetian population over the centuries. In the late ninth century, Berengar, Margrave of the March of Friuli was elected king of Italy. Under his tumultuous reign, the March of Friuli was absorbed into the March of Verona so that Verona's territory contained a large portion of Roman Venetia. In the tenth century, the mainland of Veneto, after suffering invasions from the Magyars and the Slavs, was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, the communes of the mainland grew in power and wealth. In 1167 an alliance (called the Lombard League) was formed among the Venetian cities such as Venice, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, and Verona with other cities of Northern Italy to assert their rights against the Holy Roman Emperor. The Second Treaty of Constance in 1183 confirmed the Peace of Venice of 1177 in which the cities agreed to remain part of the Empire as long as their jurisdiction over their own territories was not infringed upon. The league was dissolved at the death of Emperor Frederick II in 1250. This period also witnessed the founding of the second oldest university in Italy, the University of Padua founded in 1222. Around this time, Padua also served as home to St. Anthony, the beloved saint called simply "il Santo" ("the Saint") by the inhabitants of the town.
Map showing the empire of Venice at his height, in the XV-XVI centuries.
As the barbarians were interested in the wealth of the mainland, part of the Venetian population sought refuge on some of the isolated and unoccupied islands in the lagoon, from which the city of Venetiae or Venice was born. After a period of Byzantine domination in 8th century, Venice became an independent maritime Republic ruled by its elected doge. The Republic became a commercial superpower and its influence lasted through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In fact, the Venetian Republic enjoyed 1100 years of uninterrupted influence throughout the Mediterranean. By the 16th century, the Venetian Republic dominated over Veneto, Friuli, parts of Lombardy and Romagna, Istria, Dalmatia, the Ionian Islands of Corfu, Cefalonia, Ithaca and Zante. From the 13th to 17th centuries it held the island of Crete and from the mid-15th to mid-16th century, the island of Cyprus. Venetian mainland holdings led to Venetian involvement in European and in particular, Italian politics. Cities had to be fortified, one impressive example being Palmanova in Friuli. However, the wise rule and prosperity brought by the Serenissima made the cities of the terra firma willing subjects. Eastern Islands served as useful ports for Venetian shipping. However, as the Ottoman Empire grew more powerful and aggressive, Venice was often put on the defensive. Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean and the discoveries of sea routes to Asia around Africa and of the Americas had a debilitating effect on the Venetian economy.
A XVIII century view of Venice by Canaletto.
In 1797, Napoleon invaded the territory of the Venetian Republic. Overwhelmed by more powerful forces, Doge Ludovico Manin resigned and retired to his villa at Passariano in Friuli and the thousand year old Republic disappeared as an independent state. This proved very unpopular in the mainland cities where sympathies were strong with the Republic of Venice. By the Treaty of Campoformio signed on October 17, 1797 part of the Venetian mainland was handed over to Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire and a western part was annexed to the French backed Cisalpine Republic. The territory soon reverted back to Napoleon in 1801. However, after his ultimate defeat in 1814, the Congress of Vienna handed Veneto over to the Austrian Empire, the successor state to the Holy Roman Empire still ruled by Francis. Thus, Veneto would remain under Austrian rule, except for some cities which declared their independence in 1848, until it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy in 1866.
After the Third War of Independence and a controversial referendum Veneto was annexed to Italy. In an effort to Italianize the population, the Venetian language was not officially recognized and public servants were recruited from other regions. Due to uneven economic development reducing many to poverty, the 19th century and the first half of the 20th became a period of emigration. Millions of Venetians left their homes and their native land to seek opportunites in other parts of the world. Many settled in South America, especially in the Rio Grande do Sul region, in Brazil; others in Australia; Canada; and the United States of America. After World War II, many Venetians emigrated to Western European countries.
Year Pop. %?
1871 2,196,000 ?
1881 2,346,000 6.8%
1901 2,580,000 10.0%
1911 3,009,000 16.6%
1921 3,319,000 10.3%
1931 3,487,000 5.1%
1936 3,566,000 2.3%
1951 3,918,000 9.9%
1961 3,847,000 −1.8%
1971 4,123,000 7.2%
1981 4,345,000 5.4%
1991 4,381,000 0.8%
2001 4,528,000 3.4%
2008 (Est.) 4,869,000 7.5%
Source: ISTAT 2001
The region has about 4.8 million inhabitants, raning Veneto as the fifth most populated region in Italy. Veneto has one of the highest population densities amongst the Italian regions (265 inhabitants per km2 in 2008). This is particularly true in the provinces of Padua, Venice and Treviso, where the inhabitants per km2 are above 300. Belluno is the less densely populated province, with 57 inhabitants per km2.
Like the other regions of Northern Italy and Central Italy, though with a certain time lag, Veneto has been experiencing a phase of very slow population growth caused by the dramatic fall in fertility. The overall population has so far been increasing - though only slightly - due to the net immigration started at the end of the 1960s, after more than 20 years of massive exodus from the poorer areas of the region.
Nearly 3 Millions of Venetians were forced to leave their country between 1861 and 1961 to escape poverty . Many emigrated to South America, especially Brazil, after World War II they moved to other European countries. Due to the impressive economic growth of the last two decades, Veneto has turned into a land of immigration and has been attracting more and more immigrants since the 1990s. In 2008 the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 403,985 foreign-born immigrants live in Veneto, equal to 8.3 % of the total regional population.
Saint Mark's Basilica, the see of the Patriarch of Venice.
Veneto soon converted to Christianity. The region venerates as its patrons the second century bishop St. Hermagoras and his deacon St. Fortunatus, both of Aquileia and both marytrs. Aquileia became the metropolitan see of Venetia. Aquileia had its own liturgical rites which were used throughout the dioceses of Veneto until the later Middle Ages when the Roman Rite replaced the Aquileian Rite.
In 2004 over 95% of the population claimed to be Roman Catholic. The region of Veneto along with the regions of Friuli and Trentino-Alto Adige/S?dtirol form the ecclesiastical region of Triveneto under the Patriarchate of Venice. The Patriarchate of Venice is an archdiocese and metroplitan see of an ecclesiastical region which includes suffragan episcopal sees of Adria-Rovigo, Belluno-Feltre, Chioggia, Concordia-Pordenone, Padua, Treviso, Verona, Vicenza, and Vittorio Veneto. The Archdiocese of Venice was elevated to an honorary Patriarchate by the pope on October 8, 1457 when the Patriarchate of Grado was suppressed. The first patriarch of Venice was Laurence, a nobleman of the Giustiniani family. During the twentieth century the patriarchs were usually appointed cardinal, and three cardinal patriarchs, Giuseppe Sarto, Angelo Roncalli, and Albino Luciani were elected pope: Pius X, John XXIII, and John Paul I, respectively. The Patriarchate of Venice claims St. Mark the Evangelist as its patron. The symbol of the winged lion became the typical symbol of the Venetian Republic.
Traditionally the Veneto had been a poor agricultural region as well as a land of mass emigration. Since the 1970s Veneto has seen an impressive development, thanks to the so called Veneto development model - characterised by a wide export-oriented entrepreneurship in traditional sectors and a strong social cohesion - making it actually the third richest region in terms of total GDP (?139 billion) after Lombardy and Lazio
Geography and historical events have determined the present social and economic structure of the region, centred on a broad belt running east to west. The plain and the Alpine foothills are the most developed areas in contrast to the Po delta to the south and - to a lesser extent - to the mountains. Industrial development is mainly concentrated in this central belt, with the exception of the manufacturing of spectacles in the valleys around Belluno. The Alps and the province of Rovigo, more than other areas, show a trend of both declining and ageing population.
The region's agriculture is among the most productive in the country. However, it is still characterised by an intensive use of labour, due to the specialisation in market gardening, fruit-growing and vine-growing throughout the plain and the foothills. In the south and in the extreme east of the region, grain crops are more common and land holdings are larger than in the rest of the region. The cattle stock, although declining, still represented 15% of the national stock in .
Industrial development is a fairly recent phenomenon. This sector burst in the post-war period with the creation of small and medium-sized firms that now form the region's industrial base. With infrastructure evenly distributed throughout the territory and a good road network, it has been possible to avoid industry over-concentration. As to manufacturing, different areas, mainly along the Verona-Vicenza-Padua-Treviso axis, tend to specialise in different products: food products, wood and furniture, leather and footwear, textiles and clothing, gold jewellery. This partition of the territory into industrial districts, typical of Veneto, has led to the establishment of a strongly export-oriented system of industries. The industries of power, chemicals and metals processing are more important in the eastern central belt, especially around Porto Marghera, where various branches of companies from outside the region are located. In recent years, some local chemical plants had to stop their production in order to be restructured or were closed because of their dangerousness in a densely populated area. During the last 20 years, a large number of Venetian industries relocated their plants (especially the most dangerous and polluting productions) in Eastern Europe, especially Romania. The Romanian city of Timişoara is also called "The Newest Venetian Province".
Hotel and catering trade play an important role in the services sector. One-fifth of Italy's foreign tourism is to the Veneto, which is the first region in Italy in terms of tourist presence and the second after Emilia Romagna in terms of hotel industry structures. The business volume of tourism in Veneto is estimated in 12 billion Euros. 
The University of Padua in a 1654 woodcut.
Veneto hosts one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Padua, founded in 1222. OECD investigations show that school education achievements in North-Eastern Italy (whose population comes mainly from Veneto) are the highest in Italy. As of 2003 the university had approximately 65,000 students.
See also: Venetian language and Venetian literature
Most of the people of Veneto speak standard Italian. However, there is widespread usage of Venetian language. Venetian dialects are classified as an Italo-Western Romance language. Scholars distinguish between an Eastern or Coastal (Venice) group, a Central (Padua, Vicenza, Polesine) group, a Western (Verona) group, a North-Central (Treviso) group, and a Northern (Belluno, Feltre, Agordo, Cadore, Zoldo Alto) group of dialects. All dialects are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Ladin is spoken in parts of the province of Belluno, especially in the municipalities of Cortina d'Ampezzo, Livinallongo del Col di Lana and Colle Santa Lucia. A German dialect is spoken in Sappada (Plodn in German). Moreover, in the area around Portogruaro people speak Furlan.
As the region does not enjoy a special status of autonomy, minority languages are not granted any form of recognition. Anyway a motion to recognize Venetian as an official regional language has been approved by the regional Parliament.
Asiago cheese and crackers.
Veneto is an important wine-growing area. Among the best wines can be remembered: Soave (wine), Bardolino, Recioto, Amarone, Torcolato, Prosecco, Tocai Rosso,Garganega, and Valpolicella. Other, more common wines are Verduzzo, Raboso, Moscato, Cabernet Franc, Pinot Nero, Pinot Grigio, and Merlot. Homemade wine making is widespread. After making wine, the alcohol of the pressed grapes is distilled to produce grappa or graspa, as it is called in the local language.
Among the best-known cheeses of Veneto the following should be mentioned: Asiago (PDO) (from Asiago), Monte Veronese (PDO), Piave (PDO), Morlacco, Grana Padano (PDO).
The sopressa vicentina (PDO) is an aged salami, cylindrical in shape and prepared with raw, quality pork meat. It may or may not include garlic in its ingredients and comes in medium and large sizes. Prosciutto Veneto Berico-Euganeo (PDO) is obtained from the fresh meat of a top breed of adult hogs. The aroma is delicate, sweet and fragrant.
Radicchio rosso di Treviso (PGI) is a peculiar vegetable with a faintly bitter taste and a crunchy texture. The production area encompasses many town districts in the provinces of Treviso, Padua and Venice. The radicchio Variegato di Castelfranco (PGI) has a delicate and slightly sweet taste and a crunchy texture. Veronese Vialone Nano Rice from Verona (PGI) is a type of rice with short, plump grains, which have a creamy consistency when cooked. They are commonly used in risotto dishes and have a high starch content. The Bean of Lamon (PGI) is particularly prized for its delicate flavour and extremely tender skin. The White Asparagus of Cimadolmo (PGI) has a characteristic scent and a very delicate taste. The White Asparagus of Bassano is a typical product of the northern part of the province of Vicenza. The San Zeno di Montagna (Verona) chestnut is another remarkable product. The town of Marostica is famous for its cherries.
Example of masks used during the Carnival of Venice.
Each town, often every quarter, has its patron saint whose feast day is solemnly celebrated. Many other festivals are closely linked to the religious calendar. Among these:
* Carnival of Venice celebrated the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday;
* Panevin celebrated around Epiphany;
* Pasqua (Easter Sunday);
* Saint Mark's feast day (April 25);
* La Sensa (Ascension Thursday);
* San Giovanni Battista (June 24);
* La festa del Redent?r (mid July);
* Vendemmia (grape harvest in September);
* San Nicol? de Bari (St. Nicholas, December 6);
* Nad?l (Christmas)
Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Veneto
Veneto is a presidential representative democracy. The President of the Region, colloquially nicknamed Governor or even Doge, in remembrance of Venice's glorious tradition, is also the head of the regional government. Legislative power is exerted by the Regional Council, the local parliament. The statute, i.e. the regional constitution, was promulgated on May 22, 1971. Even though it recognizes the inhabitants as a "people" (i.e. a distinct people from the Italian people), the region is not granted a form of autonomy comparable to that of the neighbouring regions Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/S?dtirol. This is the reason why many municipalities have held referendums in order to be united to these regions.
Traditionally a very Catholic region, Veneto was once a stronghold of the Christian Democracy. Nowadays it is a stronghold of the centre-right coalition, which has governed the region since 1995, under President Giancarlo Galan, formerly affiliated to Forza Italia and now to The People of Freedom. The governing coalition is also composed of the Liga Veneta?Lega Nord and the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats.
Main article: Government of Veneto
Presidents of Veneto
President Party Term Legislature
Angelo Tomelleri DC 1970?1971 I Legislature
Angelo Tomelleri DC 1971?1972 I Legislature
Piero Feltrin DC 1972?1973 I Legislature
Angelo Tomelleri DC 1973?1975 I Legislature
Angelo Tomelleri DC 1975?1977 II Legislature
Angelo Tomelleri DC 1977?1980 II Legislature
Carlo Bernini DC 1980?1985 III Legislature
Carlo Bernini DC 1985?1989 IV Legislature
Gianfranco Cremonese DC 1989?1990 IV Legislature
Gianfranco Cremonese DC 1990?1992 V Legislature
Franco Frigo DC 1992?1993 V Legislature
Giuseppe Pupillo PDS 1993?1994 V Legislature
Aldo Bottin PPI 1994?1995 V Legislature
Giancarlo Galan FI 1995?2000 VI Legislature
Giancarlo Galan FI 2000?2005 VII Legislature
Giancarlo Galan FI 2005?... VIII Legislature
Source: Veneto Region
Veneto is my fatherland. Even if there exists a Republic of Italy, this abstract idea is not my Fatherland. We Venetians have travelled throughout the world, but our Fatherland, that for which we would fight if it were necessary to fight, is Veneto. When I see "River sacred to the Fatherland" written on the bridges spanning the Piave, I am moved, not because I think of Italy, but rather because I think of Veneto.
?Goffredo Parise, Il Corriere della Sera, February 7, 1982
Alternative flag of Veneto used by most Venetist parties.
Veneto is the cradle of Venetism, a political movement that appeared during the 1970s and 1980s, demanding more autonomy for the region, or even independence, and promoting Venetian culture, language and history. This is the political background in which the Liga Veneta (Venetian League) was launched in 1980. Other Venetist parties such as Liga Veneta Repubblica and North-East Project emerged, but they never touched the popularity of the Liga Veneta, which was a founding member of Lega Nord in 1991.
Nowadays Liga Veneta?Lega Nord traditionally scores considerable results in local and national elections. The mayors of Verona and Treviso are members of the party, as well as the Presidents of the Provinces of Treviso and Vicenza. In the 2008 general election Lega Nord reached 27.1% of the vote.
According to Robert Putnam, the "institutional performance" of Veneto's regional government is higher than average in Italy, thus Veneto belongs to what Putnam defines as "civic North". Veneto has a long tradition of high quality public health care, which can be traced to the historical heritage of the Republic of Venice.
Veneto is divied into 7 provinces and 581 municipalities:
Provinces of Veneto.
Province Area (km?) Population Density (inh./km?)
Province of Belluno 3,678 213,059 57.9
Province of Padua 2,141 905,112 422.8
Province of Rovigo 1,789 245,598 137.3
Province of Treviso 2,477 865,194 349.3
Province of Venice 2,463 841,609 341.7
Province of Verona 3,121 889,862 285.1
Province of Vicenza 2,722 848,642 311.8
Pos. Municipality Inhabitants
(inh./km?) Elevation above sea level
1? Venice 268.741 412,54 651,4 1 VE
2? Verona 262.403 206,63 1.269,9 59 VR
3? Padua 209.696 92,85 2.258,4 12 PD
4? Vicenza 113.969 80,54 1.415,1 39 VI
5? Treviso 81.665 55,50 1.741,4 15 TV
6? Rovigo 51.378 108,55 473,3 6 RO
7? Chioggia 50.880 185,20 274,7 2 VE
8? Bassano del Grappa 42.237 46,79 902,7 129 VI
9? San Don? di Piave 39.774 78,73 505,2 3 VE
10? Schio 38.779 67,04 578,4 200 VI
Here is a selection of the main attractions of Veneto.
The cities of art
* Venice: Venice and its lagoon are listed as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.
* Padua: also known as the "City of the Saint"; the Orto botanico di Padova is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
* Verona: The city of Shakespeare's famous lovers: Romeo and Juliet. Verona has been named a UNESCO world heritage site.
* Vicenza is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites, together with a number of the Palladian Villas.
* Belluno the capital of the Dolomites, the bell tower was designed by Filippo Juvarra
* Montagnana is a municipality in the province of Padova with perfectly conserved medieval walls
* Bassano del Grappa with its Ponte degli Alpini on the river Brenta, designed in 1569 by Andrea Palladio
* Marostica : The 'Chess Game' is the most important event of the town, taking place on the second weekend of September, involves over 550 participants and lasts two hours.
* Asolo is known as 'The Pearl of province of Treviso', and also as 'The City of a Hundred Horizons'.
* Este : The House of Este held the city until 1240, when they moved their capital to Ferrara.
All over the Venetian plain, but especially in the provinces of Treviso, Padua, Vicenza and Venice, stand the famous Ville Venete. The date of construction of these villas ranges from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. There are approximately five thousand Ville Venete, of which 1,400 are declared of historical and monumental interest.
Cansiglio is a pre-alpine massif located in the north-eastern Veneto in the provinces of Treviso and Belluno.
'Parco Nazionale Dolomiti Bellunesi' is situated in the southern section of the Province of Belluno.
The area of Lake Garda is a major tourist destination. Various towns along the lake, such as Lazise, Cisano, Bardolino, Garda (VR), Torri del Benaco and Malcesine, are popular resorts.
Cortina d'Ampezzo, it's situated in the province of Belluno and is one of the most exclusive mountain locations in Europe together with Kitzb?hel in Austria and St. Moritz in Switzerland. It was scene of the 1956 Winter Olympics. To the north there are the Tre Cime di Lavaredo ,said to be a symbol of the Italian Dolomites.
Arabba lies between the Sella group and the Marmolada. Auronzo is in the upper Cadore. Sappada is in the extreme north of the region.
The thermal baths of Abano Terme are an important tourist attraction. Despite being the most famous, Abano is not the only thermal town in the area. Montegrotto Terme and Recoaro Terme are other popular resorts.
Venice's Lido is an 11-mile long sandbar, visited by many tourists every summer.
Jesolo is one of the most important seaside resorts on the Adriatic coast, just a few kilometres far from Venice. Every year Jesolo gives accommodation to over 4.5 million tourists.
Caorle has often received awards forone of the cleanest beaches in Italy. Bibione and Eraclea are popular resorts too. Albarella island is a private island on the Lido that has some of the best beaches. Alberoni Beach is set in a nature reserve.
* Caius Volteius Capito (born ? Oderzo - died ?), centurion who fought with Julius Caesar in the Roman Civil War against Pompey.
* Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (ca. 80/70 BC Venetia? - ca. 25 BC) was a Roman writer, soldier, architect, and engineer.
* Titus Livius known as Livy in English (ca. 59 BC at Padua - 17 AD ) wrote a monumental history of Rome, Ab Urbe Condita, from its founding (traditionally dated to 753 BC) through the reign of Augustus.
* Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca. 84 BC Verona - ca. 54 BC Rome), one of the most influential Roman poets of the 1st century BC.
* Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus (born ? Padua - died AD 66), Roman Senator and Stoic philosopher who protested the abuses of and was subsequently killed by order of Nero.
* Totila (early 6th c. AD, Treviso - 552Taginae), King of the Ostrogoths, military genius, killed by forces of Justinian at Battle of Taginae
* Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus (ca. 530 - 540 near Valdobbiadene - ca. 609 Poitiers) Latin poet and hymnodist, bishop of Poitiers (600 - 609).
* Enrico Dandolo (ca.1107?1205), Doge of Venice from 1192 until his death; despite being aged, blind, and excommunicated, he led the troops which conquered Constantinople.
* Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 Venice - January 8, 1324 Venice) was a Venetian merchant and explorer of Persia, India, and China who wrote of his travels.
* Benedict XI born "Nicholas Boccasini" (1240 Treviso ? July 7, 1304 Rome), pope from 1303 to 1304.
* Gregory XII born "Angelo Correr", in Venice, died (October 18, 1417 Rome), pope from 1406 to 1415 during the Great Western Schism.
* Eugene IV born "Gabriele Condulmer" (1383 Venice ? February 23, 1447 Rome), pope from March 3, 1431 to February 23, 1447.
* Paul II born "Pietro Barbo" (1417 Venice - 1471 Rome), pope from August 30, 1464 to July 26, 1471.
* Panfilo Castaldi (1398 Belluno - 1479 Venice?), switched from studying medicine to typography; he is considered a precursor of Johannes Gutenberg.
* Andrea Mantegna (ca. 1431, Isola di Cartura now Isola Mantegna (Padova), Italy ? September 13, 1506, Mantua) was a major Renaissance artist.
* Giovanni Caboto a.k.a. John Cabot (c. 1450 (Genova) ? c. 1499), navigator and explorer acknowledged as the first European to discover the North American mainland in 1497; a citizen of the Republic of Venice.
* Pietro Bembo (1470 Venice - 1547 Rome), Venetian patrician, historian of the Republic, Renaissance poet and humanist, named cardinal by Pope Paul III in 1539.
* Sebastiano Caboto (1477 Venice - 1577 London) explorer for Spain and England, son of John Cabot.
* Giorgione (c. 1477?1510) is the familiar name of Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco, one of the seminal artists of the High Renaissance in Venice.
* Titian or Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1488/1490 ? August 27, 1576) was the leader of the 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance.
* Marcantonio Flaminio (1498 Serravalle ? 1550), Renaissance Humanist and secretary of Cardinal Pole at the Council of Trent.
* Angelo Beolco a.k.a. "il Ruzzante" or "el Ruzante" (1502 Padua ? 1542), actor and playwright who wrote in the dialect of Padua.
* Andrea Palladio (November 30, 1508 Padua ? August 19, 1580 Maser) was a Venetian architect, one of the main architects in the history of Western architecture.
* Andrea Gabrieli (c. 1510 (Venice) ? late 1586 (Venice)) was a late Renaissance composer and organist, the first internationally renowned member of the Venetian School of composers who spread the Venetian style in Italy as well as in Germany.
* Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Robusti; 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of Italian Renaissance.
* Giovanni Gabrieli (c.1554?1557 (Venice) ? August 12, 1612 (Venice)), composer and organist whose works represent best of the Venetian School; nephew of Andrea Gabrieli.
* Alexander VIII born "Pietro Vito Ottoboni" (April 22, 1610 Venice ? February 1, 1691 Rome) was pope from 1689 to 1691.
* Francesco Morosini (1618 Venice - 1694 Nauplia), Doge of Venice, called "il Peloponnesiaco" for his reconquest of Greece and defence of it against the Ottoman Turks.
* Marco d'Aviano (1631 Aviano, Republic of Venice - 1699) was a Capuchin friar, papal legate to the "Holy League", and purported inventor of cappuccino; beatified in 2003.
* Bartolomeo Cristofori (May 4, 1655 Padua - January 27, 1731) was a maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano.
* Benedetto Marcello (born July 31 or August 1, 1686 in Venice - died July 24, 1739 in Brescia) was a composer, writer, advocate, magistrate, and teacher.
* Antonio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678, Venice ? July 28 (or 27), 1741, Vienna), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest") was a priest and baroque music composer, as well as a famous violinist.
* Clement XIII born "Carlo della Torre Rezzonico", (March 7, 1693 Venice ? February 2, 1769 Rome), pope July 6, 1758 to February 2, 1769.
* Pietro Longhi (November 5, 1701 Venice - May 8, 1785), was a painter of contemporary scenes of life.
* Baldassarre Galuppi (October 18, 1706 - January 3, 1785), was a composer from Venice, noted for his operas, and particularly opera buffa.
* Carlo Goldoni (February 25, 1707 - February 6, 1793), Along with Luigi Pirandello, Goldoni is probably the most famous name in Italian theatre, in his country and abroad.
* Giovanni Battista Piranesi (October 4, 1720 in Mogliano Veneto (near Treviso) - November 9, 1778 in Rome) was famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Carceri d'Invenzione).
* Giacomo Casanova (aka Jacques Casanova) (April 2, 1725 Venice - June 4, 1798 Dux, Bohemia (now Duchcov, Czech Republic)), infamous Venetian adventurer, writer, and womanizer.
* Ludovico Manin (May 14, 1725 ? October 24, 1802), last Doge of Venice.
* Lorenzo Da Ponte born "Emmanuele Conegliano,"(March 10, 1749 Ceneda (Vittorio Veneto) ? August 17, 1838 New York), librettist to Mozart, first professor of Italian language and literature at Columbia College, helped establish an Opera House in Manhattan.
* Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 Legnago (Province of Verona) ? May 7, 1825), composer and conductor who became the Austrian imperial kapellmeister from 1788 to 1824.
* Antonio Canova (November 1, 1757 - October 13, 1822) was an sculptor who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh.
* Gregory XVI born "Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari" (September 18, 1765 Belluno ? June 1, 1846), a Camaldolese monk, reigned as pope from 1831 to 1846.
* Daniele Manin (May 13, 1804 (Venice) ? September 22, 1857 (Paris)), patriot and statesman who led Venice in an effort to assert independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1848 to 1849.
* Giovanni Miani (1810 Rovigo - 1872 Mombutta), patriot who took part in the defense of Venice against the Autrians in 1849; explorer of the upper Nile in Africa, director of zoological museum in Khartoum.
* Pius X (Latin: Pius PP. X), born "Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto" (June 2, 1835 Riese, (Province of Treviso) - August 26, 1914 Rome), reigned as pope from 1903 to 1914 and canonized in 1954.
* Elia Dalla Costa (1872 Villaverla - 1961 Florence), cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, he became known as "the Cardinal of Charity" for helping save thousands of Italians from execution under the Fascist regime.
* John Paul I, (in Latin Ioannes Paulus PP. I), born "Albino Luciani" (October 17, 1912 Forno di Canale, (Province of Belluno) - September 28, 1978 Rome), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 to September 28, 1978.
* Andrea Zanzotto (born October 10, 1921) Pieve di Soligo, (province of Treviso, is one of the most important Italian contemporary Poets.
* Mario Rigoni Stern (November 1, 1921 ? June 16, 2008 from Asiago) was an Italian author and World War II veteran, as well as a Nazi concentration camp survivor.
* Luigi Meneghello (February 16, 1922 - June 26, 2007) was an Italian contemporary writer and scholar.
* Luigi Nono (born January 29, 1924 in Venice; died May 8, 1990 in Venice) was a composer of classical music and intellectual, one of the most important composers of the 20th century.
* Severino Poletto (born March 18, 1933 Salgareda, Treviso), archbishop of Turin since June 1999, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
* Federico Faggin (born December 1, 1941), physicist and electrical engineer considered to be one of the inventors of the microprocessor.
* Benetton family whose global upmarket clothing brand is based in Treviso, Italy.
* Dino Meneghin (born January 18, 1950), Italian former basketball player. He was considered the best player for his country for decades, and, for several years, also the best in Europe.
* Sara Simeoni (born April 19, 1953) is a former high jumper, who won a gold medal at the 1980 Summer Olympics and set two times a world record in her speciality.
* Riccardo Patrese (born April 17, 1954), former Formula One (F1) racing driver, from 1977 to 1993.
* Renzo Rosso (born 1955), clothing designer and founder of the Diesel clothing company.
* Gelindo Bordin (born April 2, 1959) is a former athlete, winner of the marathon race at the 1988 Summer Olympics.
* Moreno Argentin (born December 17, 1960, San Don? di Piave), province of Venice is a former professional cyclist.
* Roberto Baggio (born February 18, 1967), legendary former Italian footballer (soccer player), regarded as among the best players in the world throughout the 1990s.
* Davide Rebellin (born August 9, 1971) is a professional cyclist.
* Alessandro del Piero (born November 9, 1974), footballer (soccer player) from Conegliano, Treviso.
* Filippo Pozzato (born September 10, 1981), professional cyclist.
* Damiano Cunego (born September 19, 1981, Cerro Veronese), province of Verona is an Italian professional road bicycle racer.
* Francesca Segat (born January 21, 1983 Vittorio Veneto, Treviso), swimmer who has competed and won medals for Italy in International Competitions.
* Federica Pellegrini (born August 5, 1988 Mirano, province of Venezia), she is currently the women's 400m freestyle (Long Course) and 200m freestyle world record holder.
For original text see Wikipedia, "Veneto."
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